AFOLU – Agriculture, forestry, and other land use
AIC – Aviation-induced cloudiness
Alternative jet fuel – another term for SAF, that was used before SAF became the standard industry term
ATSM Annex – see ATSM Spec
ASTM International – formerly the American Society for Testing and Materials, is an international standards organization. Its Subcommittee D02.J0 on Aviation Fuels guides the standards for aviation fuel. Originally founded in 1898 to work out why railway tracks were breaking.
ASTM spec: D165 – the technical certification for SAF produced from co-processing fats, oils and greases (FOG)
ASTM spec: D7566-1 – Annex 1 – the technical certification for SAF produced using Fischer-Tropsch process. Limited to 50% blend.
ASTM spec: D7566-2 – Annex 2 -the technical certification for SAF produced from HEFA (recycled oils and fats). Limited to 50% blend.
ASTM spec: D7566-3 – Annex 3 – the technical certification for SAF produced from biomass used for sugar production. Limited to 10% blend
ASTM spec: D7566-4 – Annex 4 – the technical certification for SAF made from aromatics from alkylation (such as coal, biomass, natural gas). Limited to 50% blend.
ASTM spec: D7566-5 – Annex 5 – the technical certification for Alcohol to Jet (AtJ) pathway. Maximum blend is 50%
ASTM spec: D7566 –6 – Annex 6 – covers Catalytic Hydrothermolysis – such as soybean oil, jatropha oil, camelina oil, tung oil. Maximum blend in 50%
ASTM spec: D7566 –7 – Annex 7 – the technical certification for SAF produced from algae. Limited to 10% blend.
Alcohol to Jet – Converting alcohols into SAF by removing the oxygen and linking the molecules together to get the desired carbon chain length (i.e. oligomerization). feedstock ethanol and iso-butanol. Maximum blend ratio is 50%.
ATAG – Air Transport Action Group
ATJ – Alcohol to jet
ATJ-SAF – Alcohol to Jet Sustainable Aviation Fuel
ATJ-SPK – Alcohol to Jet Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene and the pathway to produce it
ATS – Aviation Transition Strategy
BAU – Business as Usual
BECCS – Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage
Bio-diesel – Diesel made from sustainable feedstocks
Bio-jet/Bio-jet fuel – another term for SAF, that was used before SAF became the standard industry term
Bio-kerosene – another term for SAF, that was used before SAF became the standard industry term
CAGR – Compound annual growth rate
Catalytic Hydrothermolysis (CHJ) – CHJ converts fatty acid esters and free fatty acids into SAF via catalytic hydrothemolysis followed by any combination of hydrotreatment, hydrocracking, or hydroisomerization and fractionation. Max blend ratio is: ASTM spec: 50%. D7566 – Annex 6.
CCUS – Carbon capture, utilisation, and storage
CDR – Carbon dioxide removals
CHJ – Catalytic Hydrothermolysis Jet Fuel – a type of SAF
CH-SAF – Catalytic Hydrothermolysis SAF – a type of SAF
CH-SK – Catalytic Hydrothermolysis Synthesized Kerosene – a type of SAF
Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative – (CAAFI)
CO2 – Carbon dioxide
CO2e – Carbon dioxide equivalent
Co-processing – vegetable oils, waste oils and fats, or FT-wax, can be processed along with conventional crude oil feedstocks in existing refining complexes. ATSM D1655 covers SAF co-processing from fats, oils and greases
Corn stover – The leaves, stalks, and cobs of maize (corn) plants that are left in fields after cobs are harvested. SAF from corn stover is seen as a second generation feedstock as it made from waste unlike conventional corn ethanol.
CORSIA – Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation
CST – Clean Skies for Tomorrow initiative
DAC – Direct Air Capture
DACCS – Direct air carbon capture and storage
DOE – The US Department of Energy
Feedstock – the raw ingredients used to make SAF. Such as used cooking oil, forestry waste etc.
Fit for 55 – European Union legislation that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 55% by 2030.
FOG – Fats, oils and greases
Fischer Tropsch – In 1925 Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research in Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany, developed a process to convert a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (syngas) into liquid hydrocarbons. The process needs catalysts, high temperatures and high pressure.
FT – Fischer Tropsch
FT-SPK – Fischer Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene – SAF produced using the Fischer Tropsch process
FT-SKA – Fischer Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics – SAF produced using the Fischer Tropsch process containing aromatics
GHG – Greenhouse gas
HEFA – Hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids – used to describe both the oils and fats used as feedstock and the pathway of making it.
HEFA-SAF – SAF made from Hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids
HEFA-SPK – Synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SAF) made from hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids synthetic paraffinic kerosene
HFS-SIP – see Synthesized Iso-Paraffins (SIP)
HHC-SPK – Hydroprocessed Hydrocarbons – Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene
Hydrotreating – When oils and fats (triglycerides) are reacted hydrogen to remove oxygen. The remaining hydrocarbon chains are similar to diesel and then can then be split into SAF.
HVO – Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil – used interchangeably with HEFA in the bio-fuel industry, but more associated with bio diesel rather than SAF.
IATA – International Air Transport Association
ICAO – International Civil Aviation Organization
IEA – International Energy Agency
IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
ICCT – International Council on Clean Transportation
Jet A/Jet-A – commercial jet fuel grade commonly used in North America (-40oC/-40oF freeze point).
Jet A1/Jet A-1 – jet fuel grade commonly used in Canada and outside of North America (-47oC/-52.6oF freeze point).
LCA – Lifecycle analysis
LCOE – Levelised cost of Energy
Lignocellulose – plantmatter or biomass – also called lignocellulosic biomass.
LTAG – Long-term aspirational goal
LTO – Landing and take-off
Maximum blend – the maximum amount of SAF that can be used when mixed with fossil jet fuel. Governed by ASTM regulations.
Methanol-to-Jet (MTJ) – SAF that is produced from methanol. Not yet an approved pathway but one that is being worked on.
MSW – Municipal Solid Waste
MTJ – Methanol-to-Jet. SAF that is produced from methanol. Not yet an approved pathway but one that is being worked on.
Neat SAF – SAF that has not been blended with fossil fuel like Jet A1/Jet A-1
Non-conventional jet fuel – another term for SAF, that was used before SAF became the standard industry term
NOX – Nitrogen oxides
Oligomerization – Creating oligomers. An Oligomer is a molecule made of a few repeating units.
PTL – Power to liquid
Renewable jet fuel – another term for SAF, that was used before SAF became the standard industry term
Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials (RSB) – the RSB has members from a worldwide movement of businesses, NGOs, academics, government and UN organisations want to support and develop best practices for all biomaterials.
RSB – Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials)
SAF – Sustainable Aviation Fuel
SBTi – Science Based Targets Initiative – a partnership between CDP (formerly Carbon Disclosure Project), United Nations Global Compact, WRI (World Resources Institute) and WWF (World Wildlife Fund).
SIP – Synthesized Iso-Paraffins
SBC – Synthetic blend component – SAF produced in a standalone unit (as opposed to co-processing)
SPD – Synthetic Paraffinic Diesel
Syngas – a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen used in the Fischer-Tropsch process
Synthesized kerosene – SAF produced in a standalone unit (as opposed to co-processing)
Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) – another term for SAF, that was used before SAF became the standard industry term
UNFCCC – United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Well-to-tank – covers Scope 3 emissions from jet fuel
Well-to-wake – covers full value chain